• 1000 IHSTC 140216
  • IH 17022016
  • 1000 CONVEGNO RUSSIAN 21 03 2016
  • 1000 CONVEGNO ENG 21 03 2016
  • 1000 CONVEGNO ITA 21 03 2016
  • 1000 ASTANA ITA 05032015
  • CINFAI ROVERETO VERS 2 16 02 2016


The project SINERGREEN (Small Intelligent & Green Energy), sponsored by European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and MIUR in the context of PON “Ricerca e competitività 2007-2013”, emerged from  the union of two R&D projects: SINERGRID (Smart Intelligent Energy Community Grid) and SMARGREEN (Smart& Green Energy).

SMARGREEN is an innovative solar thermodynamic energy production system, that permits to create clean energy thanks to the combination of two different external combustion engines: a demonstrator of Stirling engine and an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle).

This solar thermodynamic energy production system is installed at Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of the University of Enna Kore. The municipality of Enna is involved in its experimentation, by the implementation of a LED street lighting, that is not  energy-consuming. Moreover, it is equipped with a real time consuptions remote control. 

Report Contract:  l'attività di ricerca scientifica per motori di Stirling di cui alle seguenti attività progettuali:

-       1-B.1_SNG (Studio, Progettazione, Simulazione e Costruzione del sistema caldo) Attività, nello specifico: contribuire allo stabilirsi di contatti organici (scambi di know-how, personale, formazione, ecc.) con il settore accademico-scientifico, le imprese,  le istituzioni del mondo russofono; porre le premesse per un’integrazione delle conoscenze e competenze in vista di una joint venture con proiezioni di mercato internazionale nel settore della combustione esterna;

-       5-B.2_SNG (Disseminazione dei risultati della ricerca componente SMART&GREEN ENERGY - pubblicazioni scientifiche, organizzazione/partecipazione workshop - componente SMART & GREEN ENERGY), nelle specifico: collaborare alla sperimentazione in svolgimento in ambito S&G_E; fornire supporto  tecnico per l’attività di comunicazione parallela all’attività tecnica nel progetto Smart&Green_Energy, in particolare per l’inserimento nel contesto “on the way to Astana Future Energy” del suddetto Progetto PON04a2_E_SINERGREEN - CUP B71H12000730005.


1. The Soviet period of development of domestic Stirling machine engineering (1959-1992)

  Till 1991 Russia was included into five led countries of the world where the batch production of separate samples of Stirling machines was mastered. More than 15 enterprises and the scientific organizations were engaged in questions of creation of Stirling machines in the USSR in the period from 1959 to 1991. The works connected to creation of machines of the given cycle were carried out basically within the framework of defence departments and organizations with the purpose of application in various kinds of military techniques and, therefore, had no wide publicity. Manufacturers of refrigerating machinery with Stirling cryogenic machines were machine building enterprise "Arsenal", "Geliymash", «Sibcriotechnika", State Unitary Enterprise "Orion", etc. Organized manufacture of Stirling cryogenic machines (SCM) took place at these enterprises. Air separating installations "ZIF-700", "ZIF-1002" and "ZIF-2002", and also cryogenic machines with not greased piston sealing and rhombic drive SCM 1500/80 and SCM 900/80 were manufactured on the basis of SCM. However, in 1990-1995 manufacture of the cryogenic equipment was completely stopped because of the absence in Russia of solvent customers. Works on creation of refrigerating machineries for auto refrigerator techniques were carried out in Russia in 1991 - 1994. For this purpose pre-production models of refrigerating machines by productivity up to 5 kW, working in a range from 285K up to 230K were created with efficiency and weight-and-dimension characteristics corresponding to those of modern steam compressor refrigerating machine (SCRM) for auto refrigerator techniques. However, in 1994 works on this project were stopped in connection with the general recession in economy and financial difficulties of the customer. Researches on creation of domestic Stirling engines were carried out in the Central R&D Diesel Institute and a number of other organizations of Russia in the period from 1972 to 1991. Samples of Stirling engines with capacity from 200 W up to 250 kW were created during this period. Although the efficiency of the experimental Stirling engines did not exceed 15-20 %, still some interesting scientific-practical results concerning the design of chambers of combustion for Stirling engines and the mathematical modelling of processes in an internal contour of the engine, etc. were produced during works.

Practical works on Stirling engines were stopped for the lack of state financing in 1990. Scientific researches on subjects of Stirling machines were carried out in the Bauman State University, Central R&D Institute of Нelium Techniques and in a number of other technical universities. Unfortunately, in Russia because of the general social and economic crisis, works on subjects of creation of Stirling machines were completely stopped with practically full loss of scientific and personnel potential after disintegration of the USSR.

The analysis of results of activity of the Soviet enterprises on the theme in question shows that creation of highly effective, competitive Stirling engines and refrigerating machines was not possible despite of long-term works. A principal cause of all failures was the absence of powerful computer complexes and methodology of designing and calculation of Stirling machines on the basis of application of multiple-parameter optimization and mathematical programming at that time.

2. The modern period of development Russian Stirling machine engineering (1990-2009)

 The modern period of development of domestic Stirling machine engineering in Russia opens with  the beginning of research works in the Military-Space Academy A.F.Mozhajskyi in 1990. This organization was unique in Russia where system experimental-and-theoretical works on all the spectrum of applications of Stirling machines were carried out in the interests of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation in the period from 1990 to 2004. The significant scientific and technical potential, in many respects the exceeding potential of the conducting foreign companies in this area of a science has been saved up for 15 years of hard work. The new Russian scientific school of designing and calculation of Stirling machines has been generated during works organized and headed by Dr.Sci.Tech. Kirillov N.G.

On the basis of the given scientific potential some companies of a research-and-production structure for realization of some large projects in the field of domestic Stirling machine engineering have been created in Saint-Petersburg in 2004-2008: developmental works on creation of garage filling stations of the liquefied natural gas and systems of catching vapours of mineral oil on the basis of Stirling cryogenic machines have been lead by experts of the IRC "Stirling-technologies Ltd.", "Russian Stirling" and "R&P Institute of Stirling machine engineering” during this period.

The design-budget and design documentation on serial manufacturing of the given systems has been developed. Also the project of creation of container power station with Stirling engine working on coal methane has been realized. Application of results of the projects in question allows entering in the world market with essentially new highly effective and ecological techniques for an oil-and-gas complex and independent power. However, world financial crisis of the end of 2008 - beginnings of 2009 and sharp recession in financing innovative projects has not allowed starting a batch production of the developed systems and the given companies have been closed.

3. Since 2009

Presently the Russian tradition heritage in the engineering and manufacturing Stirling machines is concentrated in some companies  engaged in the creation and promotion of projects like the Innovative - Consulting Centre Stirling machine engineering ("ICC" Stirlingmach”): the basic direction of business of "ICC" Stirlingmach” is rendering different kind of services for the Russian and foreign enterprises showing interest to creation of Stirling machines which has concentrated in itself all 40-years practical experience and the scientific potential which has been saved up by experts of the Soviet and Russian enterprises for last 40 years in area of Stirling machine industry.

Contract activity focus

In view of the tasks prescribed by CINFAI, the role of IHSTC basically consisted in bringing into the experimentation activity on external combustion - playing a central role in the Sinergreen-Smargreen project - international knowledge and experience in the field with particular attention to the Russian speaking world, while addressing successive activity towards the  Astana Energy Expo 2017 with  the scientific ambition of blending the excellence of the school of Russian mechanics with that of Italian research in electronics and modelling. 

Activity development

The performed project activities  can be placed into three distinct phases:

1st phase (July-August 2015)

The first phase occurred  just before the experimentation phase - which took place at the University Enna Kore campus (the so called Campo Prove) - and,  as a consequence, most of the effort was concentrated on:

  • cooperating with all the people involved in the set up of the experimental equipment (in    particular, the Stirling demonstrator and the connected  technical devices); contacts were continuous and the experimentation benefited from the  efficiency in exchanging information;
  • gaining insight into the general purposes of the project (in particular by interacting with the top scientific and technical experts involved);
  • bringing into the project the contribution of international expertise primarily in the matter of  external combustion engines, but also  for what concerns energy in general;
  • planning (mostly in cooperation with CINFAI and CINFAI Spinoff) the experimentation phase and successive developments;

       •   planning the analysis of international market in view, in particular, of the potential of the  Russian school  (see NOTE) for the results of              the proposed research.

2nd phase (September-October 2015)

In this period the experimentation took place in the selected area (Campo prove) in Enna (Sicily) and, while continuing the above described activity, the emphasis obviously was on following the experimentation: this required a continuing activity in constant contact with the people (from technicians to top experts) running the experiment.  

As the experimentation evolved, the results were preliminary analysed and discussed in view of further research to be performed in the successive phase.

During the month of October scientific-technical contributions were given in support of the development of initiatives of international communication and dissemination of the information concerning the Sinergreen-Smargreen project in the context of the III CINFAI national congress in Rovereto (Italy). 

3rd phase (November 2015 – March 2016)

Based on the results obtained in the experimentation, in view of the international final meeting to be held in February 2016, the following activities have been and are being currently developed:

-       Conclusive  analysis of experimentation results.

-       Definition of the objectives of further experimentation: different experimental set-up, different regimes, new measurements devices, etc..

-       Preparation final meeting: involvement of the international scientific community, formulation of the scientific program

-       “On the way to Astana”: definition of the scientific-technical basis for  a sequence of initiatives leading eventually to the Astana     event.

As to the last point, interaction with international top scientists and managers shall go through an intensive phase on occasion of the final meeting of Sinergreen-Smargreen project with the purpose of defining a calendar of meetings leading eventually to an organized participation in the Astana 2017 Energy Expo. 

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